Entries by Chris Whitaker


Frequently Asked Questions About Drug Testing in Schools

How do some schools conduct drug testing? Following models established in the workplace, some schools conduct random drug testing and/or reasonable suspicion/cause testing. This usually involves collecting urine samples to test for drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, phencyclidine (PCP), and opioids (both heroin and prescription pain relievers). In random testing, students are selected regardless […]


What Is Lean?

We’ve described the risks of misusing cough and cold medicines to get high. Prescription cough medicines that contain promethazine (an antihistamine) or codeine are sometimes combined with soda and candy in a drink called “lean” or “sizzurp.” Lean is sometimes used at electronic dance music (EDM) parties, and a recent study found that half of […]


Vaping (E-Cigarettes), Nicotine and Tobacco

Despite some promising signs that traditional tobacco cigarette use is decreasing among teenagers, unacceptably high numbers of youth are vaping nicotine. NIDA’s 2019 Monitoring the Future Survey of eighth, 10th, and 12th graders show alarmingly high rates of e-cigarette use compared to just a year ago. Reported past month nicotine vaping among teens in 2019: […]